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Thesaurus

Wiebe Stodel

An attempt towards a classification system for bagpipes and affinities

For the determination of the several types of bagpipe I apply codes, consisting of sections (each divided in elements of 1 or more positions).
Since an instrument is not always available for a close scrutiny (picture, stage performance, &c.), I decided to use the external characteristics for a first determination.
To allow a more detailed description (based on personal research, literature or other sources), I added codes, each of which indicates one of the non-visible parts (such as reeds, &c.), or certain features of an instrument. Some of the latter features may even be unique for only one particular type of instrument.
The codes are intended to be applied to generalities of bagpipe types (the Irish Uilleann pipes, the Spanish Bot, the Russian Volynka, &c.), not for the description of individual instruments.


This survey shows the internal structure of the dictionary, based on these codes, allowing the reader to focus on any of the particular aspects of its contents.


BAGPIPES

NB: The number of stocks mentioned below are those for chanter(s) and drone(s) only. The stock for the blowpipe or bellows is NOT included, since its presence is already implied in the definition of the type.

general term for number and arrangement of pipes [?]

common name for each of the sounding pipes (i.e. chanter(s) & drone(s)) of 1 instrument [?]

Non-specified and unidentified types

Mouth-blown bagpipes

Non-specified and unidentified mouth-blown bagpipes

Types of mouth-blown bagpipes

Bellows-blown bagpipes

Non-specified and unidentified bellows-blown bagpipes

Types of bellows-blown bagpipes

General terms for bellows-blown bagpipes

Specific terms used for Uilleann pipes

General terms or specific names for bagpipes

AIR RESERVOIR and its parts

Air reservoir: inflexible

Air reservoir: flexible

STOCKS

socket for the insertion of one or more pipes

stock for the blowpipe

oblong opening in the lower flank of the blowpipe stock

shoulder(s) on the blowpipe stock, allowing tying in

receptacle at the bottom of the blowpipe stock, collecting saliva

stock for the chanter(s)

stock for chanter(s) and drone(s)

reed protection (inside the bag), rendering even air supply and protecting the reeds against pollution from the bag

key in the chanter stock; used to close the airsupply before tuning the drones

groove at the upper end of the chanter stock, allowing tying-in

device at the back of the main stock, used for tuning the small drone

groove in the stock, in which the Tirette is thrusted

slide used for tuning a drone; ➺ Layette

stock for the drone(s)

stock for the insertion of the Main stock (Irish)

extension piece of the drone stock

key to switch air supply for all drones on/off (in 1 go)

stock for a 2nd drone

stock for the bellows

device within the chamber of the drone stock of the Chamber pipe, used to stop or start the drones or regulator, if required, whilst playing

decoration on the main stock (or the stock for the chanter)

parts of the decoration on the front of the stock for the chanter

particular part(s) of the decoration of the chanter stock

material used for the decoration of the stock

string used for tying-in a stock

AIR SUPPLY

Blowpipe and its parts

Bellows and its parts

CHANTERS and their parts

Unidentified types

Single chanters

Double chanters

Unidentified types

Type 1: 1 piece

Type 2: assembled

Type 3: not linked

specific term for a set

left hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: type? / reed?

right hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: type? / reed?

left hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: bore?, divergent, bell / single reed

right hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: bore?, divergent, bell / single reed

left hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: cylindrical, parallel, no bell / double reed

right hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: cylindrical, parallel, no bell / double reed

left hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: cylindrical, divergent, no bell / single reed

right hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: cylindrical, divergent, no bell / single reed

left hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: cylindrical, divergent, bell / single reed

right hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: cylindrical, divergent, bell / single reed

left hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: cylindrical, divergent, bell / double reed

right hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: cylindrical, divergent, bell / double reed

left hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: conical, divergent, no bell / reed type?

right hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: conical, divergent, no bell / reed type?

left hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: conical, divergent, no bell / double reed

right hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: conical, divergent, no bell / double reed

left hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: conical, divergent, bell / single reed

right hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: conical, divergent, bell / single reed

left hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: conical, divergent, bell / double reed

right hand chanter of a non-linked double chanter: conical, divergent, bell / double reed

Triple chanters

Quadruple chanter

Chanter parts

basis (only) of an assembled double chanter or hornpipe

each of the 2 additional pieces of cane used to secure the pipes into the yoke

the 2 chanter tubes only

each of the 2 chanter tubes

actual chanter of a double chanter

2nd pipe/tube of a double chanter

2nd chanter (of a double chanter)

variable drone

extension piece for tuning the semidrone

actual drone of a double chanter

extension piece for tuning the drone (of a double chanter)

bent tube between semidrone and bell

bell of the semidrone

actual chanter of a triple chanter

2nd pipe/tube of a triple chanter

drone of a triple or quadruple chanter

shoulder/mount on the upper part of the chanter, at the base of its tenon

2nd shoulder, between upper shoulder and thumbhole

upper part of chanter (without fingerholes), lodging the reed

part of chanter, with fingerholes

central joint of chanter, with keyhole

lower (bent) part of chanter, also: knee-shaped tube, with chanter bell

tube, connecting chanter and bell

eye at the back of a chanter (or Rokče, Macedonia)

flat decorative ring at the foot of a chanter, primarily intended to prevent the wood from cracking

sound enhancing end of a chanter

completely open bell, without cavity

semi-closed bell with cavity

horizontal part of the bell, pointing forward

extremity of the chanter bell, bent upwards

enlargement of the bell; decorative resonance cavity

"lid" of bell, partially open, sometimes decorated

combination of the 2/3 pipes of a double/triple chanter

any of the finger-, sound- and ventholes

each of the pits in which the fingerholes are embedded

each of the tone producing holes of a chanter or semidrone

hole for the thumb of the upper hand

hole for the index finger of the upper hand

narrow cylindrical tube inserted in the "flea hole" of Balkan bagpipes

hole for the 2nd finger of the upper hand

hole for the 3rd finger of the upper hand

hole for the little finger of the upper hand

hole for the thumb of the lower hand (as encountered in some French bagpipes)

hole for the index finger of the lower hand

hole for the 2nd finger of the lower hand

hole for the 3rd finger of the lower hand

hole for the little finger of the lower hand

fingerhole in a stopped semidrone, allowing the drone to sound when open; when closed the drone is mute

tuning-hole

venthole of the semidrone

mechanical device used to open/close a "fingerhole"

handle of the key

flat part of the key

lining of the key cap

resilient device of the key

device, between which a key is mounted, allowing the latter to hinge

protective pod concealing key-hinge and -cap

each of the hole(s) in the Fonanel(le)

pad, tied to the thigh, providing an airtight seal (Uilleann pipes)

valve, used by some players instead of the popping strap (Uilleann pipes)

plug inserted in a chanter, or other melody pipe to stop it

Practice chanter

DRONES and their parts, &c.

organ-point; Generic term for all pipes producing a fixed and continuous tone

Unidentified types

Drone types

only drone




low drone (judged visually: the longest drone in a set)



medium drone (judged visually: unless very short, the 2nd drone in a set of 2 or more)



high drone (judged visually: unless very short, the 2nd shortest drone in a set of 3 or 4)


very high drone (judged visually: a very short (if not the shortest) drone in a set)


exceptionally high drone (judged visually: the shortest drone in a set)


mute drone (dummy drone)

Various

REEDS and their parts, &c.

Non-specified and unidentified types

Single reeds

reed consisting of a base (the Body) with a vibrating blade (the Tongue)

type uncertain (down- or up-cut?)

cane single reed, the upper end of which is stopped by a natural node

cane single reed, the upper end of which is closed with a plug of other material (wax, &c.)

term used for single reeds, the tongue of which is cut into their base; If damaged, such a reed has to be replaced entirely; If cut directly in the tube(s) of so-called "primitive clarinets", replacement is impossible, of course

term used for single beating reeds with the vibrating end of their tongue facing the stock and bag, or the mouth of the player

idioglot single reed with the vibrating end of its tongue facing stock and bag, or the mouth of the player

term used for single beating reeds with the vibrating end of their tongue facing the bore of the tube in which they are inserted

term used for idioglot single reeds with the vibrating end of their tongue facing the bore of the tube in which they are inserted

idioglot single reed with the vibrating end of its tongue facing the bore of the tube in which it is inserted

term for a single reed, the tongue of which is attached to a slotted base and therefore replaceable, if damaged

term used for single reeds, the tongue of which is attached to a frame, in which it can vibrate freely (i.e. without touching the frame); Occurs in several eastern Asian hornpipes and mouth organs (Compare accordion "reeds")

sign (mark) near the vibrating end of the reed tongue

base of a single reed (idioglot (either up- or down-cut) or heteroglot)

natural node, closing the upper end of a cane single reed base

plug, used to stop the upper end of a cane single reed base, if not closed by a natural node

vibrating blade of a single reed (idioglot (either up- or down-cut) or heteroglot)

ring around a single reed, at the base of the tongue; used for tuning

winding: thread, wound around the base of a single reed, also used for tuning (as a bridle)

Double reeds

Various

CONSTRUCTION

internal canal of a tube; conical (tapered), or cylindrical

internal diameter, increasing or decreasing downwards

internal diameter, not changing from top to bottom

narrowing section between the bore of a tenon and the main chanter cone

overall length of a (usually low) drone, including internal/external U-bends (compare Bassoon, Trumpet)

actual length of a drone, after "shortening"

term used for chanters which are fully closed at their lower end

protruding parts of a chanter or semidrone, between which a key is mounted, allowing the latter to hinge

opening of a stock, or centre and tuning piece, in which another piece is inserted

mortise of the stocks

mortise of the centre and upper tuning pieces

narrow end of a tube which fits into the mortise of the stock or of another tube

upper tenon of the chanter, lodging the reed(s)

tapered bore in the upper tenon of the chanter, lodging the reed

lower tenon of the chanter, lodging the bell

narrow end of butt and centre pieces, for insertion into the tuning piece

slightly conical tuning slide of the main (low) drone

ribbed surface of a tenon or tuning slide, preventing the Lapping to slip off

yarn, wound around a tenon/tuning slide to allow easy insertion and to prevent the escape of air

seal, usually made of a slice of cork, glued into the recess of a tenon/tuning slide to prevent the escape of air

measure (accompanied by conversion in mm, if available!) used to define the chanter size of a bagpipe

measure (accompanied by conversion in mm, if available!) used to define the space between 2 fingerholes

measuring staff for correct spacing of fingerholes

term used for the first 4 church-modes in Mediaeval music; a melody is called authentic if its lowest note (not counting a leading tone) is the tonic

term used for the church-modes in Mediaeval music that lie a quarter below the authentic modes; a melody is called plagal if the tonic lies a quarter above its lowest note (not counting a leading tone)

metal pin used to fasten pieces of metal together, or to connect pieces of metal with other material (e.g. horn)

any embellishing element (such as grooves or protrusions) in the wood

narrow and shallow decorative groove, burnt (using a metal string for friction) or turned in the wood

ring, turned in the wood as a decoration, or to hold an enclasping ferrule of other material

protruding decorative ring turned in the wood of a tube to give it added strength

shoulder bordering on the tenon of the chanter

shoulder between fingerholes

decorative ring slipped around a tube, preventing the wood from cracking

protruding decorative ring slipped around a tube; preventing the wood from cracking

non-protruding ring slipped around the end of a tube; preventing the wood from cracking

non-protruding decorative inlay ring, also used to prevent the wood from cracking

non-protruding decorative design, usually of delicate material, embedded in grooves chiselled into the wood

WOOD TYPES, &c. used in bagpipe making

CANE

BAMBOO (used in Southeast Asian mouth organs)

DECORATIVE ELEMENTS and materials


MAINTENANCE, &c.

CRAFTSMEN & PERFORMERS (terminology)

maker of bagpipes (&c.)

bagpipe maker, -vendor; piper; term used without distinction

bagpipe maker’s workshop

any person who plays some kind of bagpipe (&c.)

any female person who plays some kind of bagpipe (&c.)

term for any itinerant musician (who [also] plays a bagpipe (&c.)), making his living with his music

itinerant musician(s): "wandering minstrel-cum-clown"

local term(s) for a duo or band (ensemble) including a piper (&c.)

local term(s) for a band or ensemble including 2 or more pipers (&c.)

pipe band (➺ Bulgaria, France (Bretagne [Brittany]), Ireland, Scotland and Spain (Galicia))

official gathering of a guild, or similar organisation, of musicians

courteous "title" or "pet name", as used in several cultures

PERFORMING & PLAYING TECHNIQUES

to adjust the tones of a musical instrument to the required scale/pitch

the action of tuning a bagpipe (&c.)

pitch-pipe, used in case 2 or more pipers wish to play together

tuning device

each of the spatulae for spreading bees-wax when tuning, or adjusting a reed

chain or other means from which dangles the spatula(e)

holder, containing spatulae for spreading bees-wax when tuning, or adjusting a reed

spare supply of beeswax used for tuning, &c.

place / receptacle (on the instrument) used to store the spare supply of beeswax used for tuning


to play a bagpipe (&c.)


bagpipe music

Playing style(s)

Blowing/Breathing techniques

Playing techniques

Finger techniques (a)

Finger techniques (b)

interjected note(s), applied to separate two notes, as an embellishment or in order to suggest a staccato ("gracing")

Syllabic vocalisation of gracing techniques

Other finger technique(s) used to suggest a staccato

Octaving techniques

Terms for specific notes on the chanter

Various



Various techniques limited to Southeast Asian mouth organs

LINGUISTICS

names of fingers (NOT of fingerholes)



the uppermost finger on the chanter

HOMONYMS (i.e. Bagpipe names (also) used for other instruments)

Various

wind instrument with a tongue cut directly in its sound pipe, or with a single reed

wind instrument with a double-reed, generally defined as a primitive (or folk) oboe


Expressions, &c.

household words (in preparation)

expressions & proverbs (in preparation)

term(s) used alternatively in a literary context (in preparation)

anecdotes (in preparation)

jokes (➺ Bagpipes in jest)

metaphors (in preparation)


terms for particular bagpipe practices


Terms related to dance accompaniment


Terminology, &c.

diminutives (in preparation)

augmentatives (in preparation)

plural only terms (in preparation)

synonyms (in preparation)


Romanisation of foreign script

transliteration of Greek γγ (2x gamma): ➺ ng (e.g. Άγγεῖον: ➺ Angion)

transliteration of Greek Γκ / γκ (gamma + kappa): ➺ G/g (e.g. Γκαϊντάρης: ➺ Gaidaris)

transliteration of Greek Δ/δ (delta): ➺ Dh/dh (e.g. Δαχτυλίδι: ➺ Dhachtylidhi)

transliteration of Greek Η/η (eta): ➺ Y/y (Classical Attic: ➺ Ē/ē)

transliteration of Greek Μπ / μπ (mu + pi): ➺ B/b (e.g. Μπερτσάλο: ➺ Bertsalo)

transliteration of Greek Ντ / ντ (nu + tau): ➺ D/d (e.g. Ντιβριντίνα: ➺ Divridina)